Messenger No. 57 (September 1989)
SEST - the first year of operation.
Booth, R. S.; Johansson, L. E. B.; Shaver, P. A.
AA(Onsala Space Observatory, Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, Sweden) AB(Onsala Space Observatory, Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, Sweden) AC(ESO)
The Swedish-ESO Submillimetre Telescope (SEST) completed one full year of scheduled observations at the end of March this year. Its performance has Surprised and delighted many - its trouble- free operation and the c1ear skies of La Silla combining to effect large volumes of data. Few users of SEST have returned home disappointed. That the telescope has filled an important need is seen clearly in the demand for observing time: its over-subscription, averaged over the year and over ESO and Swedtsh users, amounted to a factor of about 2.5. This issue of the Messenger is deVoted in part to summaries of work done with the new telescope. Some of the work described is already published but most is still undergoing analysis; we are grateful to those people who have written the summaries and to those who have provided data prior to publication.
Booth, R.S., de Jonge, M.J., and Shaver,
P.A. 1987, The MessengerNo. 48, p. 2.
Booth, R. S. et aJ. 1989, Astron. Astrophys.,
High-mass star formation.
Massive stars seem to be formed in two different, and indeed quite extreme regimes: a very low-efficiency process (typically less than 1%) associated with the formation of expanding OB associations, and a much higher efficiency mode (the starburst mode) that leads to the formation of bound clusters (Lada, 1985). Clearly, large numbers of massive stars can only form at the density peaks of very massive molecular c1ouds, while loose OB associations tend to form at the edges of clouds.
Elmegreen, B.G., Lada, C.J., 1977, Ap. J,
Elmegreen, B.G. 1985, 1985 in IAU Symp.
No. 115, Star Forming Regions, eds. M.
Peimbert and J. Jugaku, p. 457.
Lada, C.J., 1985 in IAU Symp. No. 115, Star
Forming Regions, eds. M. Peimbert and J.
Jugaku, p. 1.
McCray, R., Kafatos, M., 1987, Ap. J, 317,
Melnick, J., 1987 in IAU Symp. No. 121, Observationa/
evidence of activity in ga/axies,
eds. E. Ye. Khachikian, K.J. Fricke and J.
Melnick, p. 545.
Scoville, N.Z., Sanders, D. B., Clemens, D. P.,
1986, Ap. J, 310, L77.
Silk, J., 1985, 1985 in IAU Symp. No. 115,
Star Forming Regions, eds. M. Peimbert
and J. Jugaku, p. 663.
Solomon, P. M., Rivolo, A. R., Barret, J., Yahil,
A., 1987, Ap.J, 318, 730.
Low-mass star-forming regions.
While high-mass star formation is a dramatic process visible throughout large parts of our Galaxy, the formation of low-mass solar-type stars involves much more modest phenomena. But because low-mass stars are so much more common than high-mass stars, it is Possible to find molecular c10uds with abundant young low-mass stars at distances as small as 100 to 200 pc.
AA(Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Bonn, F. R. Germany)
Cometary globules (CG's; see Fig. 1), first observed in 1976, are interstellar clouds with comet-like morphology, consisting of compact, dusty, and opaque heads and long, faintly luminous tails. Unlike most dark clouds, CG's are isolated neutral globules surrounded by a hot ionized medium.
Booth, R. S., alberg, M., Reipurth, B.: 1989,
Brand, P.W.J.L., Hawarden, 1.G., Longmore,
A.J., William, P. M., Caldwell,
J. A. R.: 1983, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron.
Soc. 203, 215.
Cernicharo, J., Radford, S.: 1989, in preparation.
Harju, J., Sahu, M., Henkel, C., Wilson, 1. L.,
Sahu, K.C., Pottasch, S.R.: 1989, Astron.
Laustsen, S., Madsen, C., West, R.M.: 1987,
"Exploring the Southern Sky", Springer
Reipurth, B.: 1983, Astron. Astrophys. 117,
Zealey, W.J., Ninkov, Z., Rice, E., Hartley, M.,
Tritton, S. B.: 1983, Astrophys. Letters 23,
AA(Onsala Space Observatory, Sweden)
The research regarding interstellar chemistry with SEST can be divided into three categories: (i) searches for new molecules, (ii) studies of known molecules in order to shed light on their formation, and (iii) spectral scans - systematic observations of large frequency bands in a few interesting sources. Spectral scans give a good overview, not only of the chemical content, but also of physical traits. Typical excitation temperatures for different species give a handle on the kinetic temperature. The variation of excitation temperature with energy level and/or molecular state reveals regions of different temperature and density inside the beam (pointspread function) of the telescope. Of course, unidentified lines and unexpected molecules are also found
Sergman, P., Friberg, P., Hjalmarson, A., Irvine,
W. M., Miliar, T. M., Ohishi, M. (in progress).
Gerin, M., Combes, F., Encrenaz, P., Destombes,
J.L., 1989, The Messenger
No. 56, p. 59.
Irvine et al. (in preparation).
Johansson, L. E. S., Olofsson, H., Hjalmarson,
A., Gredel, R., 1989 (private communication).
Minh, Y. C., Irvine W. M., Friberg, P., Johansson,
L. E. S., 1989, Ap. J. (in press).
AA(SEST, La Silla)
Studies of evolved stars using submm and mm-wave telescopes such as the SEST are mainly concerned with the very last stages of the life of astar, when it throws away its outer envelope and is surrounded by a shell of dust and gas. The dust obscures the star optically and most studies of stars at this stage of their evolution have been made in the radio and infrared regions of the spectrum. The circumstellar gas consists mainly of molecular hydrogen, H2, but also of other less abundant molecules (e.g. CO, SiO, OH, H20, HCN, etc.), which are important since they radiate in the radio region, something that is not these case for molecular hydrogen. These molecules can be used to study the properties of the circumstellar envelope (CSE), e. g. to determine massloss rates, which are important for the evolution of the star, and to study the chemistry of the envelope.
Nyman, L.-A., Johansson, L. E. B., Booth,
R. S.: 1986, Astron. Astrophys. 160, 352.
Olofsson, H.: 1989, in IAU Coll. 106, "Evolution
of Peculiar Red Giants", eds. H. R.
Johnson and B. Zuckerman, Cambridge
Ololsson, H., Eriksson, K., Gustafsson, B.:
1987, Astron. Astrophys. 183, L 13.
Olofsson, H., Eriksson, K., Gustafsson, B.:
1988, Astron. Astrophys. 196, L 1.
van der Veen, W. E. C. J., Habing, H.: 1988,
Astron. Astrophys. 194, 125
Molecular clouds and galactic structure.
AA(Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Florence, Italy)
One of the features of the SEST is its sub-arcminute resolution, allowing one to observe molecular clouds at high spatial resolution, as described in a number of the other reviews in this issue. However, the SEST can also be used to investigate the large-scale distribution of the molecular cloud ensemble. Such a study, focused on the outer Galaxy, is the topic of this contribution.
The galactic centre.
AA(Stockholm Observatory, Saltsjöbaden, Sweden)
One of the most interesting and mysterious regions of our Milky Way galaxy is the Galactic Centre (GC). Lying at a distance of 8.5 kpc in the direction of Sagittarius, it is best observed from the southern hemisphere. However, great masses of intervening dust in the plane of the Galaxy produce 30 magnitudes of absorption and the GC is not observable in the optical region. Most of the knowledge that we possess about the GC has been obtained at infrared and radio Wavelengths, using northern hemisphere telescopes. These observations are often hampered by the low elevation of the object, resulting in atmospheric problems and short observing sessions. With its declination of about -30°, the GC becomes almost a zenith object at transit over La Silla and is therefore weil suited for studies with SEST.
SN 1987A and other bolometer observations at 1.3 mm.
AA(Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Bann, F. R. Germany)
During August/September 1988 the bolometer group of the MPI für Radioastronomie, Bonn, visited SEST to perform continuum observations at 1.3 mm. It was the first observing time of our group at this telescope and the first sensitive test for SEST at that wavelength. The submm qualities of La Silla were another uncertainty in the mission so that it seemed more than questionable whether any astronomical data would come out of our run.
CO observations of the Magellanic Clouds.
Israel, F. P.
.The commissioning of the SEST on La Sllia has opened up a new era in the study of the interstellar medium in the Magellanic Clouds. With this telescope, for the first time extensive, detailed studies of the (CO) molecular component of the clouds has become possible. Previously, a rather limited number of sightlines had been sampled with resolutions of 1 to 2 arcmin (see review by Israel, 1984), and a CO map covering the whole LMC but with a coarse resolution of 8 arcmin (125 pc) was obtained from Cerro Tololo (Cohen et al., 1988).
Booth, R. S., et al., 1989, Astr. Astrophys. in
Cohen, R.S., et al., 1988, Astrophys. J. (Lett)
Israel, F. P., 1984 in: Structure and Evolution
of the Magellanic Clouds, IAU Symp. 108,
Eds. S. van den Bergh and K. S. de Boer,
Reidel, p. 319
CO isotopic emission and the far-infrared continuum of Centaurus A.
AA(Max-Planck-Institut tür Physik und Astrophysik, Institut tür Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching, F. R. Germany)
Centaurus A (NGC 5128) is a peculiar elliptical galaxy with a prominent dust lane. At a distance of about 3 Mpc (The Messenger No. 44, p. 1) it is the closest radio galaxy, and to date it has been observed in almost every accessible wavelength band. Here we report on recent measurements with the SEST telescope which have contributed to our understanding of the molecular interstellar medium in this spectacular object.
von Ballmoos, P., Diehl, R. and Schoenfelder,
V., 1987, Ap. J 312,134.
Bland, J., 1985, Ph. D. Thesis, Universily of
Burns, J.O., Feigelson, E. D. and Schreier,
E. J., 1983, Ap. J 273, 128.
Crawford, M. K., Genzel, R., Townes, C. H.,
and Watson, D. M., 1985, Ap. J, 291, 755.
Ebneter, K. and 8alick, 8., 1983, P.A.S.P.
Eckart, A., Cameron, M., Rothermel, H., Wild,
W., Zinnecker, H., Olberg, M., Rydbeck,
G., Wiklind, T., 1989, in preparation.
Feigelson, A. E. D., Schreier, E. J., Devaille,
J.P., Giaconni, R.E., Grindlay, J.E., and
Lightman, A.P., 1981, Ap.J., 251, 31.
van Gorkom, J. H., 1987, in: Structure and
Dynamics of Elliptical Galaxies, Ed. T. de
Zeeuw, lAU Symp. 127, D. Reidel Publ.
Co., Dortrecht, p. 421.
Israel, F. P., van Dishoeck, E. F., Baas, F.,
Koornneef, J., Black, J., de Graauw, Th.,
1989, in preparation.
Kellermann, K.I., 1974, Ap.J Letters 194,
Malin, D. F., Quinn, P.J. and Graham, J.A.,
1983, Ap. J Letters 272, L5.
Pllillips, T.G., Ellison, B.N., Keene, J.8.,
Leighton, R. B., Howard, R. J., Masson,
C. R., Sanders, D. B., Veidl, B. and Young,
K., 1987, Ap.J Letter 322, L73.
Shaffer, D.B. and Schilizzi, R. 1., 1975, A. J.
Molecules in external galaxies.
AA(Laboratoire de Radioastronomie Millimetrique, Meudon, France)
The 15-m SEST telescope is the ~nlque facility to study with high resolu~ Ion the moieculaI' component of galaxles in the southern sky. One could object that galaxies in the northern sky already give a large enough sampie to investigate, but there are outstanding objects that can only be studied from the southern hemisphere; apart from the obvious Magellanic Clouds, it is well known that most beautiful barred galaxies, for example, are at low declinations (NGC 1300, NGC 1365, NGC 1097 ...).
Combes, F., Gerin, M. (1985) Astron. Astrophys.
Combes, F., Gerin, M., Buta, R. (1989) Astron.,
Astrophys., in prep.
Dupraz, C., Casoli, F., Combes, F. (1989) in
Gerin, M., Nakai, N., Combes, F., (1988) Astron.
Astrophys. 203, 44.
Lynds, R., Toomre, A. (1976) Astrophys. J.
Mlrabel, I. F., Booth, R. S., Garay, G., Johansson,
L. E. B., Sanders, D. B. (1988) Astron.
Astrophys. 206, L20.
Sandqvist, Aa., Elfhag, T., Joersaeter, S., Lindblad,
P. O. (1989) in prep.
Schwartz, M. P. (1984) Monthly Notices Roy.
Astron. Soc. 209, 93.
Schweizer, F. (1982) Astrophys. J. 252, 455.
Theys, J.C., Spiegel, E.A. (1976) As/rophys.
J. 208, 650.
Extragalactic continuum sources.
AA(Metsaehovi Radio Research Station, Espoo, Finland)
As with most other high-frequency radio telescopes, continuum work occupies only a small fraction - currentIy about 5% - of SEST's total time. The importance of these observations in increasing our understanding of quasars and other extragalactic sources is, however, large.
Visiting Astronomers (October 1, 1989-April 1, 1990)
Coordinated investigation of selected regions in the Magellanic Clouds.
de Boer, K. S.; Azzopardi, M.; Baschek, B.; Dennefeld, M.; Israel, F. P.; Molaro, P.; Seggewiss, W.; Spite, F.; Westerlund, B. E.
AA(Sternwarte der Universitaet Bonn, F. R. Germany) AB(Observatoire de Marseille, France) AC(Institut fuer Theoretische Astrophysik, Heidelberg, F. R. Germany) AD(Institut d'Astrophysique, Paris, France) AE(Sterrewacht Leiden, the Netherlands) AF(Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Italy) AG(Observatorium Hoher List, oaun, F. R. Germany) AH(Observatoire de Paris, Meudon, France) AI(Uppsala Astronomical Observatory, Sweden)
The greatly enhanced observational Possibilities for research in the Magellanic Clouds, such as bigger telescopes and the CCD as detector, has led the way to studies hitherto unimagined. The possibility to reach 60 kpc distant stars of fifth absolute magnitude (i. e. down to main-sequence stars fainter than the Sun) or to obtain stellar spectra to do a fine-analysis of atmospheric temperature and composition has mightily raised the importance of the astrophysical laboratory called Magellanic Clouds. In particular the study of the intricately interwoven processes of formation of stars from progenitor gas clouds and the evolution of stellar complexes can in our times superbly be investigated by observing the Magellanic Cloud constituents.
Identification of high redshift galaxies with very large gaseous halos.
Bergeron, J.; Cristiani, S.; Pierre, M.; Shaver, P.
AA(Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, France) AB(Osservatorio Astronomico, Asiago, Italy) AC(ESO) AD(ESO)
Over the last several years, considerable efforts have been aimed at understanding the properties of objects at high redshift. The main studies concern optically selected sampies of field galaxies (Koo 1986, Koo and Kron 1988, Broadhurst et al. 1988) and rich clusters of galaxies (Gunn and Dressler 1987, Gunn 1988), and radio selected objects first from the 3C sampie of bright sources (Spinrad et al. 1985, Djorgovski 1988) and more recently from sampies of fainter radio sources (Chambers et al. 1987 and 1988, Koo 1988, Lilly 1989). Our approach is to select high redshift objects with metal-rich, very extended gaseous envelopes giving rise to absorption line systems in quasar spectra. These objects may exhibit properties closer to those of normal galaxies than to those of rather extreme objects associated with powerful radio sources.
Bahcall, J.N., Spitzer, L.: 1969, Astrophys. J
Letters 156, L63.
Bergeron, J.: 1986, Astron. Astrophys. Letters
Bergeron, J.: 1988, lAU Symposium No. 130,
eds. J. Audouze, M. C. Pelletan, A. Szalay,
Kluwer Academic Publishers, p. 343.
Bergeron, J., Boisse, P.: 1984, Astron. Astrophys.
Boisse, P., Bergeron, J.: 1985, Astron. Astrophys.
Broadhurst, T.J., Ellis, R.S., Shanks, T.:
1988, Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc. 235, 827.
Caulet, A.: 1989, Astrophys. J, 340, 90.
Chaflee, F. H.Jr.: 1986, Astrophys. J 307,
Chambers, K. C., Miley, G. K., van Breugel,
W.: 1987, Nature 329, 604.
Chambers, K. C., Miley, G. K., van Breugel,
W.: 1988, Astrophys. J. Letters 327, L47.
Chambers, K. C., Miley, G. K., van Breugel,
W.: 1989, Astrophys. J, submitted.
Cristiani, S.: 1987, Astron. Astrophys. Let1ers
175, L 1.
Djorgovski, S.: 1988, "Towards Understanding
Galaxies at Large Redshift", Erice,
June 1987, eds. R G. Kron and A Renzini,
Dressler, A.: 1988, private communication.
Foltz, C. B., Weymann, R. J., Peterson, B. M.,
Sun, L., Malkan, M., Chalfee, F. H.Jr.:
1986, Astrophys. J 307, 504.
Gunn, J. E.: 1988, "The Epoch 01 Galaxy Formation",
NATO ASI Series, eds. C. S. Frenk
et al., Kluwer Academic Publishers, p. 167.
Gunn, J. E., Dressler, A.: 1988, "Towards
Understanding Galaxies at Large Redshift",
Erice, June 1987, eds. R G. Kron
and A Renzini, p. 227.
Koo, D. C.: 1986, Astrophys. J 311, 651.
Koo, D. C.: 1988, "The Epoch 01 Galaxy Formation",
NATO ASI Series, eds C.S. Frenk
et al., Kluwer Academic Publishers, p. 71.
Koo, D. C.: 1989, private communication.
Koo, D.C., Kron, R.G.: 1988, "Towards
understanding galaxies at large redshift",
Erice, June 1987, eds. R.G. Kron and A
Renzini, p. 209.
Lanzetta, K. M., Turnshek, D.A, Wolle, AM.:
1987, Astrophys. J. 322, 739.
Lilly, S.J.: 1988, Astrophys. J. 333,161.
Lilly, S.J.: 1989, Astrophys. J. 340, 77.
Sargent, W. L. W., Steidel, C. C., Boksenberg,
A.: 1988, Astrophys. J. Suppl. 68, 539.
Sargent, W. L. W., Boksenberg, A, Steidel,
C.C.: 1989, Astrophys. J Suppl. 69, 703.
Spinrad, H., Filippenko, A. V., Wyckoff, S.,
Stocke, J. T., Wagner, R. M., Lawrie, D. G.:
1985, Astrophys. J Letters. 299, L7.
Wagoner, R: 1967, Astrophys. J 149, 465.
Young, P., Sargent, W. L. W., Boksenberg, A:
1982, Astrophys. J Suppl. 48, 455.
The structure and dynamics of rich clusters of galaxies.
Mazure, A.; Katgert, P.; Rhee, G.; Dubath, P.; Focardi, P.; Gerbal, D.; Giuricin, G.; Jones, B.; Lefevre, O.; Moles, M.
AA(USTL, Montpe/lier, France) AB(Sterrewacht, Leiden, Netherlands) AC(Sterrewacht, Leiden, Netherlands) AD(0bservatoire de Geneve, Switzerland) AE(Dipartimento di Astronomia, Bologna, Italy) AF(0bservatoire de Meudon, France) AG(0sservatorio di Trieste, Italy) AH(Nordita, Copenhagen, Denmark) AI(Universidad de Andalucfa, Granada, Spain) AJ(Universidad de Andalucfa, Granada, Spain)
Rich clusters of galaxies are of great interest for several reasons. As the largest bound structures that can be fairly easily found and studied in detail, they represent a formidable constraint for theories of the formation of largescale structure in the Universe. In addition, they provide an ideal laboratory for the study of the behaviour of galaxies in an environment of high galaxy-density; quite frequently in the presence of a hot, X-ray emitting, intracluster gas, that may have a mass comparable to the total visible mass in galaxies. As rich clusters can be detected out to fairly high redshifts, they also allow one to study the evolution of the galaxy population in clusters over an appreciable fraction of the Hubble time. Even the evolution of their global structure on such timescales is amenable to study (Gunn, 1989).
N.A. Bahcall, R. M. Soneira, W. S. Burgett,
1986; Ap.J. 311,15.
A. Dressler, 1980; Ap. J. Suppl. 42, 565.
A. Dressler, S. A. Shectman, 1988; Ap. J. 95,
M. Fitchett, R. Webster, 1987; Ap. J. 317,
M.J. Geiler, T.G. Beers, 1982; P.A.S.P. 94,
J. E. Gunn, 1989; at May 1989 STScl meeting
on distant clusters.
D. Lynden-Bell, S. M. Faber, D. Burstein, R. L.
Davies, A. Dressler, R.J. Terlevich, 1988;
Ap. J. 326, 19.
Y. Mellier, G. Mathez, A. Mazure, B.
Ghauvineau, D. Proust, 1988 Astron. Astrophys.
D. Merritt, 1987; Ap. J. 313,121.
G. Rhee, M. P. van Haarlem, P. Katgert, 1989;
Astron. Astrophys. (in press).
R. M. Sharples, R. S. Ellis, P. M. Gray, 1988;
M.J. West, A. Oemler, A. Dekel, 1988; Ap. J.
S. D. M. White, G. S. Frenk, M. Davis, G. EIstathiou,
1987; Ap. J. 313, 505.
Operating Manuals Now Available
Surface Photometry Catalogue Presented
VLT operations - a first discussion.
The VLTwill be a unique observatory. With its four 8-metre independent elements and 17 foci it will offer unprecedented flexibility, in addition to its huge light collecting power. It will be equipped with technologies which are only now being realized, including adaptive optics and the potential for interferOmetric imaging. In view of these unique features, as weil as the large capital expenditure involved, it is desirable that innovative ideas on possible modes of Operation be explored, ideas which may resemble those of space observatories both in style and scale. It is also desirable that such a study be made in the early phases of design and construction of the VLT, so that the perceived reqUirements can be incorporated into the design of the VLT itself and its instrumentation.
ESO at World Tech Vienna
Polishingof VLT Mirrors: ESO and R.E.O.S.C. Sign Contract
West, R. M.
The European Southern Observatory and R. E. O. S. C. Optique (Recherches et etudes d'optique et de sciences connexes), located at Ballainvilliers near Paris, France, have reached agreement on a contract for the polishing of four giant mirror blanks for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT).
Breaking of Ground Heralds New Premises for Blank Manufacture
Optical Instrumentation Group: Status Report on EMMI
New ESO Preprints (June-August 1989)
Report on ESO Workshop 'Low Mass Star Formation and Pre-Main Sequence Objects'
The Workshop on low mass star formation and pre-main sequence objects took place in Garching on July 11 -13, 1989.
Report on ESO Workshop 'Extranuclear Activity in Galaxies'
Meurs, E.; Fosbury, R.
About 80 participants attended the ESO Workshop on Extranuclear Activity in Galaxies, held in Garching on May 16-18, 1989. The meeting was followed by an informal session on Gen A on May 19, 1989 where survivors from the previous three days were present. Additional Colleagues from ESO and from the neighbouring Max Planck Institutes could be met at the usual ESO reception at the end of the first day.
Adriaan Blaauw Recieves Bruce Medal
News About 'Remote Control' at ESO
A new video film about Remote Control (duration 12 minutes) has been produced by the ESO Information Service. It gives an introduction to this subject to the general public, but it will also be useful for astronomers, who are not very familiar with this observing facility at the ESO Headquarters in Garching
Booking of Visitor Facilities in Garching
The Research Student Programme
ESO Fellowships 1990-1991
ESO's early history, 1953 - 1975. IV. Council and directorate set to work; the initial programme of middle-size telescopes.
AA(Kapteyn Laboratory, Groningen, the Netherlands)
Once the ESO Convention had been signed, in October 1962, and the ratifications were in sight (completed January 1964), many activities developed: by the ESO Council, the now "legal" successor of the ESO Committee, and by the ESO Directorate headed by Heckmann. In the present and the next two articles I shall describe developments over the six years which followed, leading to the dedication ceremonies on La Silla in the spring of 1969. These ceremonies marked the completion of what we may now call ESO's first phase.
EC = ESO Committee (the Committee preceding
U,e ESO Council).
ECM = ESO Committee Meeting.
IC = Instrumentation Committee.
EHA = ESO Historical Archives (see the artieie
in the Messenger of December 1988).
FHA = Files Head of Administration at ESO
 Circular letter by Oort to EC members
preparatory to the ECM of May 1959, in
EHA-I.A.1.9., and minutes of that meeting.
 See letters of Oort to Danjon and Funke
of May 30, 1962, in EHA-1. C. 1.1.c.
 In EHA-1. C. 1.1.d.
 In EHA-1. C. 2.1.g.
 See correspondence between ZWO and
University of Groningen in the years
1962 and 1963 in EHA-1. C. 2.1.e.
 Information provided by the Personnel
Department of ESO; also: minutes of the
ECM of July 1963, p. 12.
 Pub!. Astron. Soc. of the Pacific 72, 225,
 I. S. Bowen, Pub/. Astron. Soc. of the
Pacific 62, 95, 1950.
 I.S. Bowen, Pub!. Astron. Soc. of the
Pacific 61, 243, 1949.
 Jahresberichte Hamburger Sternwarte
1954 and 1955; Sky and Te!escope 15,
Nov. 1955, p. 10.
 See, for instance, minutes ECM of Oct.
1957, June 1961, Oct. 1962, Nov. 1963,
Council Meetings of May 1964 and April
1966 and correspondence between
Fehrenbach, Heckmann and Oort of
June 1964 in EHA-I.A. 2.9. and I.A. 2.10.
 Minutes ECM of April and Oct. 1957; the
EHA do not contain the written report.
 In EHA-1. C. 1.9.c.
 In EHA-1. C. 1.9.a., Visite des Observatoires
 Minutes ECM of November 1961.
 See, for instance, the letter by Blaauw to
Fehrenbach of April 6, 1961 in EHA-1. C.
 EHA-1. C. 1.9.c.
 See letter by Minnaert to Oort and
Blaauw of May 1, 1961 in EHA-1. C.
 See Minnaert's letter to Van Geelen of
10 October 1961 in EHA-1. C. 1.9.c.
 Maps EHA-1. C. 1.9.flk contain preparatory
correspondence, technical descriptions,
and the tender of Rademakers.
 Minutes IC of November 1961.
 See ref. No. 18.
 Minutes ECM of June 1961.
 Minutes ECM of November 1961.
 EHA-1. C. 1.9.e. contains the Cahier de
Charges with drawings and the Marche
de Gre a Gre of REOSC of May 20,
 In EHA-1. C. 1.1.c. See also correspondence
between Fehrenbach and
Oort of October 1958 in EHA-1. A. 2.1.
 The Yale and U.S. Naval Observatories
planned an instrument in Argentina and
the Pulkovo Observatory one in Chile,
whereas Greenwich Observatory contemplated
a collaborative project with
the Cape Observatory and Hamburg
Observatory one with Perth.
 Minutes Council Meeting of May 1964,
 Letter by Guinot to Blaauw and followup
correspondence with Van Geelen in
EHA-I. C. 1.9.d.
 EHA-I.A. 1.19. and I.A. 2.6.
 ESOAnn. Report 1965, p.10.
 Astron. Journa/74, 954. 1969.
Field Strömgren photometry with a CCD.
Knude, J.; Jønch-Sørensen, H.
AA(Copenhagen University Observatory, Denmark) AB(Copenhagen University Observatory, Denmark)
The chemical evolution of the Galaxy is somehow coupled to its formation. The location of stars with a certain metalIicity may therefore also depend on the Galaxy's dynamical history.
δ Scuti stars in NGC 6134.
Kjeldsen, H.; Frandsen, S.
AA(Institute ofAstronomy, University ofAarhus, Denmark) AB(Institute ofAstronomy, University ofAarhus, Denmark)
The CCD camera on the Danish 1.5 m telescope has been used to obtain exposure time series of small areas in open clusters. The purpose is to study the frequencies of different types of pulsating variables. Very low noise levels have been reached by the use of differential photometry carefully considering the error sources.
(1) Gilliland, R. L. and Brown, T. M., 1988,
Publ. Astr. Soc. Pac., 100, 754.
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Imaging polarimetry of high redshift radio galaxies with EFOSC.
Fosbury, R. A. E.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Tadhunter, C. N.; Quinn, P. J.
AA(ST-ECF, ESO) AB(ST-ECF, ESO) AC(ST-ECF, ESO) AD(Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories, Woden, ACT, Australia)
Most of our visual perceptions of the World around us, particularly in daylight, are derived from radiation which has been reflected or scattered. Conse~ Uently, we are continually bathed in nearly polanzed light even if only the 10yaI followers of M. Mi'nnaert (1954) use the phenomenon of "Haidinger's Brush" ~o make themselves aware of it. At night, y Contrast and with the exception of the Moon and planets, most of the astronomical sources we see are both self-Iuminous and highly spherically symmetrie. Polarized light in astronomy is therefore the exception rather than the rule but, when it is observed, it can prove a valuable diagnostic either of exotic radiation mechanisms or of anisotropie scattering geometries.
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SN 1987A: two years of six-colour photometry with the Danish 0.5-m telescope.
Helt, B. E.; Vaz, L. P. R.
AA(Copenhagen University Observatory, Denmark,) AB(Observatorio Astronomico - OF-ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil)
For several years, a Brazilian-DanishSpanish group has collaborated on studies of a particular type of variable stars, the so-called eclipsing binaries.
Bionta, R. M. et al.: 1987, Phys. Rev. Letters
Catchpole, R. M. et al.: 1988, Monthly
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R.: 1987, in ESO Workshop on the SN
1987A, ed. I.J. Danziger, p. 89.
Hirata, K. et al.: 1987, Phys. Rev. Leiters 58,
CCD spectroscopy of Pγ(10939), Pδ(10049) and corresponding Balmer lines in 30 Doradus.
Greve, A.; McKeith, C. D.; Castles, J.
AA(IRAM, Grenoble, France) AB(Queen 's University, Belfast, Northem Ireland) AC(Queen 's University, Belfast, Northem Ireland)
Understanding the physical and dynamical evolution of galactic and extragalactic H11 regions requires a knowledge of the dust component and its distribution. To date the extinction Av has been derived by various methods: optical and infrared line ratios, comparison of radio and emission line fluxes, stellar photometry, etc. In particular the intensity ratios of the strong and spectroscopically easily accessible Balmer lines Halpha, Hbeta are frequently used to derive Av via their decrement. Since these lines originate from different upper levels, the interpretation of the observed line ratios requires recombination line model calculations (cf. Osterbrock 1974) which in many extragalactic cases have failed to give consistent results (Ward et al. 1987, Malkan 1983, Rieke and Lebofsky 1981). This difficulty can be avoided by using multiplet line ratios originating from the same upper level so that the theoretical line ratios depend primarily on their relative transition probabilities.
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Star formation in dwarf irregular galaxies.
Tosi, M.; Focardi, P.; Greggio, L.; Marconi, G.
AA(Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Italy) AB(Oipartimento di Astronomia dell'Universita di Bologna, Italy) AC(Oipartimento di Astronomia dell'Universita di Bologna, Italy) AD(Oipartimento di Astronomia dell'Universita di Bologna, Italy)
Contrary to the more spectacular and appealing Spiral and Elliptical Galaxies, for a long time Irregular Galaxies have not been considered to deserve detailed studies. Only in the last decade, the difficulty found in the interpretation of the major evolutionary processes taking place in bigger, more complicated galaxies, has led to new interest in Irregulars, which should be easier to understand, for a number of circumstances. he structures of Irregular Galaxies appear, in fact, to be simple, with no omblnatlon of halo and disk phases and no special evidence of dynamical ~henomena playing an important role. ehey contain a large amount of gas, aSlly detected by radio telescopes wh' , Ich means that they are in a relatively ~h~rIY stage .of the evolution. Besides s, thelr vIsible stellar content is young enOugh to indicate that Star Formation rISe a.ct'Ive .In these galaxies, several H11 glons are present and allow the derivation of the metallicity even at large distances.For all these reasons Irreguar Galaxies seem to offer a suitable ground for studying the basic phenomena Controlling the evolution of galaxies.
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Buonanno, R. 1989, ESO-MIOAS User
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Ferraro, F., Fusi Pecci, F., Tosi, M.,
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The Large Jet in the HH-111 Complex
Optical observations of X-ray binaries.
As part of my PhD study, and in the framework of a student-fellowship at La Sllia as outlined by Prof. H. van der Laan In the March issue of the Messenger, I have been working on a research programme on accretion-driven stellar Xray Sources. Another part of my work at thls moment is a long-term investigation of pulsation light curves in intermediate ~olars (a subtype of the cataclysmic varIables), which will be concluded during thls year. This research is done under the guidance of my thesis research adVISor Prof. Jan van Paradijs of the University of Amsterdam, and Dr. Hugo Schwarz at La Silla. Abrief outline of the background, and a short description of the research programme on accretion dnven stellar X-ray sources is given below. To finish, some observational results on a particular object are presented.
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The VLT adaptive optics prototype system: status July 1989.
In June 1986 the conceptual design of the VLT Adaptive Optics Prototype system was started, based on the collaboration between the Observatoire de Paris (Meudon), ONERA, the Laboratories de Marcoussis, and ESO after funding was assured by ESO and supporting French authorities.
For additional references the following papers
- F. Merkle (1988), "Adaptive Optics Development
at ESO", Proceedings 0f the
ESO Conlerence on "Very Large Telescopes and their Instrumentiontion ",Garching 21-24. march,1988.
-P. Kern, P. Uma, G. Rousset, J.C. Fontanella,
F. Merkle, J. P. Gaffard (1988),
"Prototype 0f on adaptive optical system
for inlrared astronomy", rel. as above.
- F. Merkle (1988), in SPIE Proceedings
1013: "Optical Design Methods, Applications
and Large Optics", Hamburg, F. R. G.,
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Rousset, F. Merkle, J. P. Gaffard (1989) in
SPIE Proceedings 1114: Symposium on
"Aerospace Sensing", Orlando, FI, March
Telescope alignment procedures: improved technique in the optical identification of mechanical axes.
In the article concerning "First Light" In the NTT in the Messenger No. 56, a brief description was given on page 2 of the basic steps of the alignment procedure. As was stated there, the proceure used in the NTT was essentially only a somewhat more refined form of a standard procedure which had been SucceSsfully used on a number of La Silla telescopes. The first - and most fundamental - step is the optical idenatification of the altitude axis (alt-az tele~ Clopes) or declination axis (equatorial e escopes).
Eckert, W.; Hofstadt, D.; Melnick, J.
AA(ESO) AB(ESO) AC(ESO)
Late in 1987 it became clear that, before the implementation of the ESO Multi Mode Instrument (EMMI), the NTT would require an optical instrument with imaging and spectroscopic capabilities.
Improved Shutter Timing at La Silla
A new IHAP feature: images in polar coordinates.
Stuewe, J. A.
AA(Astronomisches Institut der Ruhr-Universität Bochum, F. R. Germany)
Many astronomical objects show speCial symmetries, which generally need special techniques for image enhancement. At our institute, for example, inVestigations on structures in Cyan coma Images of comet Halley and in electronographic images of several SO galaxies are at work. In the course of these analyses it showed up that for morphological studies it is useful to represent the images in a way which already takes the (circular) symmetry of the objects into account.
Kurt Walters (1912-1989)
ESO Image Processing Group: MIDAS Memo
TEX in astronomical publishing.
Hogeveen, S. J.
AA(Astronomical Institute "Anton Pannekoek", Amsterdam, the Netherlands)
The use of the computer typesetting syslem TEX in aslronomical publishing has become inevitable.
Biemesderfer, C.D. and Hanisch, R.J.: "TEX and
LATEX Macro Definition Files for Astronomical
Publishing", Bulletin of the American Astronom/'
cal Sociely, Vol. 21, No. 2, 1989.
Daniel, H.-U., Berger, J. and Savaray, D.: "TEX and
Matl1or3-TEX for ASlronorny and Astropl1ysicS
Journal and Supplement Series", The Messenger
No. 56, 1989.
Knull1, D.: "The TEXbook", Addison-Wesley, Reading
Lamport, L.: "LATEX, A Document Preparation System",
Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massacl1usells,