Messenger No. 132 (June 2008)

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The Organisation

2-4 (PDF)
T. de Zeeuw
The Perfect Machine

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.132....2D
Section:
The Organisation
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
de Zeeuw, T.
AA(ESO)
4-5 (PDF)
ESO
10th Anniversary of First Light of the VLT

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.132....4.
Section:
The Organisation
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
ESO
AA(ESO)
5-5 (PDF)
ESO
Austria Declares Intent to Join ESO

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.132....5.
Section:
The Organisation
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
ESO
AA(ESO)

Telescopes and Instrumentation

7-10 (PDF)
M. Kissler-Patig et al.
Hawk-I – First Results from Science Verification

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.132....7K
Section:
Telescopes and Instrumentation
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Kissler-Patig, M.; Fontana, A.; Venemans, B.; Kneib, J.; Doherty, M.; Lidman, C.; Kuntschner, H.; Norris, M.; Larsen, S.; Gieles, M.; Mora Fernandes, A.; McCaughrean, M.; Preibisch, T.; Seifahrt, A.; Willis, J.; Wehner, E.
AA(ESO) AB(INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Italy) AC(Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom) AD(OAMP, Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille, France) AE(ESO) AF(ESO) AG(ST-ECF, ESO) AH(Department of Physics, University of Durham, United Kingdom) AI(Astronomical Institute, University of Utrecht, the Netherlands) AJ(ESO) AK(Departamento de Física Teórica C-XI, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain) AL(School of Physics, University of Exeter, United Kingdom) AM(Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Bonn, Germany) AN(Institut für Astrophysik, Georg-August-Universität, Göttingen, Germany) AO(Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Canada) AP(Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada)
Abstract:
The VLT wide-field near-infrared imager HAWK-I was commissioned in 2007 and Science Verification (SV) programmes were conducted in August 2007. A selection of results from among the twelve Science Verfication proposals are summarised.
References:
Casali, M., Piraud, J.-F., Kissler-Patig, M., et al. 2005, The Messenger, 119, 6 Kissler-Patig, M., et al. 2008, A&A, accepted Maraston, C., et al. 2003, A&A, 400, 823 Puzia, T. H., et al. 2002, A&A, 391, 453
11-17 (PDF)
M. Sarazin et al.
Seeing is Believing: New Facts about the Evolution of Seeing on Paranal

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.132...11S
Section:
Telescopes and Instrumentation
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Sarazin, M.; Melnick, J.; Navarrete, J.; Lombardi, G.
AA(ESO) AB(ESO) AC(ESO) AD(ESO; National Institute for Astrophysics, Bologna Astronomical Observatory, Italy; Department of Astronomy, University of Bologna, Italy)
Abstract:
Since the commissioning of the VLT it has been known that the image quality delivered by the telescopes is better, and often much better, than predicted by the seeing monitor. The advent of new sensitive instruments to measure the optical turbulence profile of the atmosphere over Paranal has finally allowed us to understand the origin of this discrepancy: the presence of a highly turbulent layer so close to the ground that it is seen by the seeing monitor, but not by the VLT unit telescopes. In this article we tell the story of this elusive surface layer.
References:
Butterley, T., Wilson, R. W., Sarazin, M. 2006, MNRAS, 369, 835 Kornilov, V., et al. 2003, Proc. SPIE, 4839, 837 Lombardi, G., Navarrete, J., Sarazin, M. 2008, E-ELT-TRE-222-0215, ESO Garching Martin, F., et al. 2000, A&AS, 114, 39 Tokovinin, A. 2007, Rev. Mex. Astron. Astrophys. (Conf. Series), 31, 61
18-19 (PDF)
C. Snodgrass et al.
EFOSC2 Episode IV: A New Hope

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.132...18S
Section:
Telescopes and Instrumentation
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Snodgrass, C.; Saviane, I.; Monaco, L.; Sinclaire, P.
AA(ESO) AB(ESO) AC(ESO) AD(ESO)
Abstract:
As part of the long-term plan for the La Silla Observatory, ESO is reducing the number of instruments offered. EMMI and SUSI have been decommissioned at the NTT, and EFOSC2 has been moved to the NTT, replacing EMMI, to leave HARPS as the sole instrument at the 3.6-m. Here we describe EFOSC2 and its many capabilities, highlight the changes that the move to the NTT brings, and look forward to future plans for this instrument.
References:
Böhringer, H., et al. 2001, A&A, 369, 826 Buzzoni, B., et al. 1984, The Messenger, 38, 9 Eckert, W., Hofstadt, D., Melnick, J. 1989, The Messenger, 57, 66 Levan, A., et al. 2005, ApJ, 624, 880 Saviane, I., et al 2007, The Messenger, 129, 14 Schwarz, H. E., Corradi, R. L. M., Melnick, J. 1992, A&AS, 96, 23
20-22 (PDF)
I. Saviane, L. Monaco
Two Volume-phased Holographic Grisms Now Available for EFOSC2

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.132...20S
Section:
Telescopes and Instrumentation
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Saviane, I.; Monaco, L.
AA(ESO) AB(ESO)
Abstract:
Starting from Period 81, two new volume-phased holographic grisms are available to be used with EFOSC2. Testing of the grisms is described. Some results on measurement of the stellar Lithium doublet and galaxy rotation curves demonstrate the performance of the new grisms.
References:
Cameron, A. G. W., Fowler, W. A. 1971, ApJ, 164, 111 Charbonnel, C., Balachandran, S. C. 2000, A&A, 359, 563 Dhillon, V., et al. 2007, The Messenger, 127, 41 Uttenthaler, S., Lebzelter, T., Palmerini, S., et al. 2007, A&A, 471, L41
23-27 (PDF)
M. Kraus et al.
The ALMA Antenna Transporter

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.132...23K
Section:
Telescopes and Instrumentation
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Kraus, M.; Stanghellini, S.; Martinez, P.; Koch, F.; Dimmler, M.; Moresmau, J.M.; Rykaczewski, H.
AA(ESO) AB(ESO) AC(ESO) AD(ESO) AE(ESO) AF(ESO) AG(ESO)
Abstract:
The ALMA observatory will consist of an array of 54 12-m diameter and 12 7-m diameter antennas. In order to configure the different array modes, it is necessary to move the antennas to different configurations. In the compact array configuration, the antennas are packed as closely as possible within a circle of 200 m diameter; in the extended configuration the antennas are spread over an area of about 15 km in diameter. The frequent relocations of antennas will be accomplished by two special vehicles, the ALMA Antenna Transporters. The challenges encountered during their development and their main characteristics are described.
References:
Haupt, C., Rykacewski, H. 2007, The Messenger, 128, 25
28-28 (PDF)
R. Laing
Recent Progress at the ALMA Test Facility

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.132...28L
Section:
Telescopes and Instrumentation
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Laing, R.
AA(ESO)
Abstract:
Recent developments at the ALMA Test Facility are presented. Many aspects of the hardware and software needed for operation in Chile have now been tested and the Facility continues to demonstrate its value as a test-bed. The first high-resolution interferometric spectra of astronomical sources have now been obtained.
References:
Hunter, T., Laing, R. A. 2008, The Messenger, 131, 47
29-31 (PDF)
H.V. Ramió et al.
Cute-SCIDAR at Paranal for E-ELT Site Characterisation

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.132...29R
Section:
Telescopes and Instrumentation
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Ramió, H.V.; Reyes, M.; Delgado, J.M.; Hernández, E.; Cagigal, M.N.; Fuensalida, J.J.; Lombardi, G.; Derie, F.; Navarrete, J.; Sarazin, M.
AA(Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Spain) AB(Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Spain) AC(Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Spain) AD(Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Spain) AE(Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Spain) AF(Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Spain) AG(ESO; National Institute for Astrophysics, Bologna Astronomical Observatory, Italy; University of Bologna, Department of Astronomy, Italy) AH(ESO) AI(ESO) AJ(ESO)
Abstract:
A new version of the cute-SCIDAR instrument, which employs the generalised SCIntillation Detection And Ranging technique to obtain detailed atmospheric turbulence profiles with height, has been designed, developed and tested by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. The instrument was developed to match the requirements of the ESO VLT Auxiliary Telescopes, within the framework of the European Extremely Large Telescope site characterisation project. Commissioning at Paranal was successfully carried out in November 2007. This upgraded version of the original instrument, presently working at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, allows g-SCIDAR turbulence profiles to be obtained in real time, a novel achievement in site testing and also a crucial tool for the optimum design and operation of Adaptative Optics and Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics systems.
References:
Fuchs, A., Tallon, M., Vernin, J. 1998, PASP, 110, 86 Fuensalida, J. J., Delgado, J. M., García-Lorenzo, B., et al. 2004a, in Second Backaskog Workshop on Extremely Large Telescopes, eds. A. L. Ardeberg and T. Andersen, proc. SPIE, 5382, 643 Fuensalida, J. J., Chueca, S., Delgado, J. M., et al. 2004b, in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, eds. D. Bonaccini Calia, B. L. Ellerbroek and R. Ragazzoni, proc. SPIE, 5490, 749 Fuensalida, J. J., García-Lorenzo, B., Delgado, J. M, et al. 2007, Rev. Mex. Astron. Astrof., 31, 86 Vernin, J. & Roddier, F. 1973, J. Opt. Soc. Am., 64, 270 Vernin, J. & Azouit, M. 1983, J. Opt. (Paris), 14, 131 Vernin, J. & Muñoz-Tuñón, C. 1992, A&A, 257, 811

Astronomical Science

33-36 (PDF)
D. Reimers et al.
The Antares Emission Nebula and Mass Loss of alpha Sco A

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.132...33R
Section:
Astronomical Science
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Reimers, D.; Hagen, H.-J.; Baade, R.; Braun, K.
AA(Hamburger Sternwarte, Universitaet Hamburg, Germany) AB(Hamburger Sternwarte, Universitaet Hamburg, Germany) AC(Hamburger Sternwarte, Universitaet Hamburg, Germany) AD(Hamburger Sternwarte, Universitaet Hamburg, Germany)
Abstract:
The Antares nebula has been known as a peculiar [FeII] emission nebula, apparently without normal HII region lines. Long-slit VLT/UVES mapping shows that it is an HII region 3'' in size around the B type star alpha Sco B, with a Balmer line recombination spectrum and [NII] lines, but no [OII] and [OIII]. The reason for the non-visibility of [OII] is the low electron temperature of 4900 K, while [NII] is seen because the nitrogen abundance is enhanced by a factor of three due to the CNO cycle. We derive a mass-loss rate of 1.05 ± 0.3 × 10–6 MSun/yr for the M supergiant alpha Sco A. The [FeII] lines seem to come mainly from the edges of the HII region.
References:
Baade, R. & Reimers, D. 2007, A&A, 474, 229 Bautista, M. A., Pradhan, A. K., Osterbrock, D. E. 1994, ApJ, 432, L135 Ferland, G. J., Korista, K. T., Verner, D. A., et al. 1998, PASP, 110, 761 Hagen, H.-J., Hempe, K., Reimers, D. 1987, A&A, 184,256 Harris, M. J. & Lambert, D. L. 1984, ApJ, 281, 739 Hjellming, R. M. & Newell, R. T. 1983, ApJ, 275, 704 Kudritzki, R. & Reimers, D. 1978, A&A, 70, 227 Reimers, D., Hagen, H.-J., Baade, R., et al. 2008, A&A, submitted Struve, O. & Zebergs, V. 1962, Astronomy of the 20th Century, MacMillan Comp. New York, 303 Swings, J. P. & Preston, G. W. 1978, ApJ, 220, 883
37-40 (PDF)
M. Matsuura et al.
SINFONI Observations of Comet-shaped Knots in the Planetary Nebula NGC 7293 (the Helix Nebula)

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.132...37M
Section:
Astronomical Science
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Matsuura, M.; Speck, A.; Smith, M.; Zijlstra, A.; Lowe, K.; Viti, S.; Redman, M.; Wareing, C.; Lagadec, E.
AA(National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo, Japan; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, United Kingdom) AB(Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, USA) AC(Centre for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, School of Physical Sciences, The University of Kent, Canterbury, United Kingdom) AD(School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, United Kingdom) AE(Science and Technology Research Centre, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, United Kingdom) AF(Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, United Kingdom) AG(Department of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, Republic of Ireland) AH(School of Mathematics, University of Leeds, United Kingdom) AI(School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, United Kingdom)
Abstract:
One of the most interesting characteristics of the planetary nebula NGC 7293 (the Helix Nebula) is its comet-shaped knots. We have observed one of the knots using the SINFONI imaging spectrometer on the VLT with adaptive optics. The spectra are analysed to obtain the spatial variation of molecular hydrogen line intensities within the knot. The images clearly show the detailed structure, which resembles a tadpole in shape, suggesting that hydrodynamic flows around the knot core create a pressure gradient behind the core. The three-dimensional spectra reveal that the excitation temperature is uniform at approximately 1800 K within the knot. The SINFONI observations help to determine the H2 excitation mechanism in planetary nebulae, as well as the importance of hydrodynamics in shaping the knots.
References:
Burton, M .G., Hollenbach, D. J., Tielens, A. G. G. M. 1992, ApJ, 399, 563 Dyson, J. E., Pittard, J. M., Meaburn, J., et al. 2006, A&A, 457, 561 Harris, H. C., Dahn, C. C., Canzian, B., et al. 2007, AJ, 133, 631 Matsuura, M., Speck, A. K., Smith, M. D., et al. 2007, MNRAS, 382, 1447 Meixner, M., McCullough, P., Hartman, J., et al. 2005 AJ, 130, 1784 O’Dell, C .R., Handron, K. D. 1996, AJ, 111, 1630 Speck, A. K., Meixner, M., Fong, D., et al. 2002, AJ, 123, 346 Tsamis, Y. G., Walsh, J. R., Pequignot D., et al., 2008, MNRAS, 355, in press Vorontsov-Velyaminov, B. A. 1968, IAU Symp. No. 34, 256 Walsh, J. R, Meaburn, J. 1987, MNRAS, 224, 885
41-45 (PDF)
M.G. Haehnelt et al.
Hunting for the Building Blocks of Galaxies like our own Milky Way with FORS

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.132...41H
Section:
Astronomical Science
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Haehnelt, M.G.; Rauch, M.; Bunker, A.; Becker, G.; Marleau, F.; Graham, J.; Cristiani, S.; Jarvis, M.J.; Lacey, C.; Morris, S.; Peroux, C.; Röttgering, H.; Theuns, T.
AA(Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge, United Kingdom) AB(Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena, USA) AC(Anglo-Australian Observatory, Epping, Australia) AD(Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena, USA) AE(Spitzer Science Center, Caltech, Pasadena, USA) AF(University of California, Berkeley, USA) AG(Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, INAF, Italy) AH(Centre for Astrophysics, Science & Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, United Kingdom) AI(Institute for Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, University of Durham, United Kingdom) AJ(Department of Physics, University of Durham, United Kingdom) AK(Observatoire Astronomique de Marseille-Provence, France) AL(Leiden Observatory, the Netherlands) AM(Department of Physics, University of Durham, United Kingdom)
Abstract:
We report results from our ultra-deep spectroscopic survey for low surface brightness Ly alpha emitters at redshift z ~ 3. A 92-hour-long exposure with the ESO VLT FORS2 instrument has yielded a sample of 27 faint line emitters with fluxes of a few times 10–18 erg s–1 cm–2 which we argue are likely to be dominated by Ly alpha. The large comoving number density, the large covering factor, dN/dz ~ 0.2–1, and the spatially extended surface brightness of the emission suggest that the emitters can be identified with the elusive host population of damped Ly alpha systems (DLAS) and high column density Lyman limit systems. The finding suggests that most Lyman limit systems and DLAS are part of the same low-mass galaxies.
References:
Bouwens, R. J., Illingworth, G. D., Franx, M., et al. 2007, ApJ, 670, 929 Christensen, L., Wisotzki, L., Roth, et al. 2006, A&A, 468, 587 Cowie, L. L., Hu, E. M. 1998, AJ, 115, 1319 Gould, A., Weinberg, D. H. 1996, ApJ, 468, 462 Haehnelt, M. G., Steinmetz, M., Rauch, M. 2000, ApJ, 534, 594 Hogan, C. J., Weymann, R. J. 1987, MNRAS, 225, 1 Møller, P., Warren, S.  J., Fall, S. M., et al. 2002, ApJ, 574, 51 Ouchi, M., Shimasaku, K., Akiyama, M., et al. 2008, ApJS, 176, 301 Partridge, R. B., Peebles, P. J. E. 1967, ApJ, 147, 868 Rauch, M., Haehnelt, M. G., Bunker, A., et al. 2008, ApJ, 681, 856 Steidel, C.C., Hamilton, D. 1995 ApJ, 105, 2017 van Breukelen, C., Jarvis, M. J., Venemans, B. P. 2005, ApJ, 359, 895 Warren, S. J., Møller, P., Fall, S. M., et al. 2001, MNRAS, 326, 759 Wolfe, A.M., Turnshek, D. A., Smith, H. E. 1986, ApJS, 61, 249

Astronomical News

47-47 (PDF)
N. Delmotte
News from the ESO Science Archive Facility

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.132...47D
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Delmotte, N.
AA(ESO)
Abstract:
Latest developments of the ESO archive including timely access to proprietary data, a new science-oriented query form and new data releases are presented.
References:
Hildebrandt, H., et al. 2006, A&A, 452, 1121 Marchetti, E., et al. 2007, The Messenger, 129, 8 Popesso, P., et al. 2008, A&A, submitted Tacconi-Garman, L. E. 2007, The Messenger, 130, 54
48-48 (PDF)
R. Gilmozzi et al.
FP7 E-ELT Preparation – Grant Agreement Funded by the European Commission is Underway

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.132...48G
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Gilmozzi, R.; Monnet, G.; Robinson, M.
AA(ESO) AB(ESO) AC(ESO)
49-50 (PDF)
M. Sterzik et al.
Report on the International Workshop on Star Formation Across the Milky Way Galaxy

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.132...49S
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Sterzik, M.; Melnick, J.; Melo, C.
AA(ESO) AB(ESO) AC(ESO)
50-50 (PDF)
ESO
Announcement of the ESO Workshop on Large Programmes

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.132...50.
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
ESO
AA(ESO)
51-51 (PDF)
ESO
Announcement of the Topical Symposium “Science with the E-ELT” at JENAM 2008

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.132Q..51.
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
ESO
AA(ESO)
51-51 (PDF)
ESO
Fellows at ESO

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.132R..51.
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
ESO
AA(ESO)
52-52 (PDF)
ESO
ESO Fellowship Programme 2008/2009

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.132...52.
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
ESO
AA(ESO)
53-53 (PDF)
ESO
New Staff at ESO

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.132...53.
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
ESO
AA(ESO)
54-54 (PDF)
H. Boffin, A. Acker
Exploring the Cold Universe – A Planetarium Show for the IYA 2009

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.132...54B
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Boffin, H.; Acker, A.
AA(ESO) AB(Observatoire de Strasbourg, France; Association des Planétariums de Langue Française (APLF))
Abstract:
A planetarium show highlighting the ALMA project is being jointly prepared by ESO and the Association des Planétariums de Langue Française.
55-55 (PDF)
ESO
Personnel Movements

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.132S..55.
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
ESO
AA(ESO)