Messenger No. 137 (September 2009)

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The Organisation

2-6 (PDF)
S. Schindler
Astronomy in Austria

ADS BibCode:
2009Msngr.137....2S
Section:
The Organisation
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Schindler, S.
AA(Institute of Astro- and Particle Physics, University of Innsbruck, Austria)
Abstract:
Austria officially became the fourteenth ESO member in June 2009. A brief outline of the recent developments and scientific highlights of astronomical research in Austria is presented. Having started from a relatively low level a few years ago, astronomical research is now expanding very rapidly thanks to the accession to ESO.
References:
Brajša, R. et al. 2009, A&A, 496, 855 De Ridder, J. et al. 2009, Nature, 459, 398 Domainko, W. et al. 2006, A&A, 452, 795 Hensler, G., Theis, C. & Gallagher, J. S. 2004, A&A, 426, 25 Kapferer, W. et al. 2009, A&A, 499, 87 Kronberger, T. et al. 2008, A&A, 481, 337 Kroupa, P., Theis, C. & Boily, C. M. 2005, A&A, 431, 517 Metz, M. et al. 2009, MNRAS, 394, 2223 Recchi, S. et al. 2007, A&A, 470, L5 Renaud, F. et al. 2008, MNRAS, 391, L98 Rödiger, E. & Hensler, G. 2005, A&A, 433, 875 Schindler, S. et al. 2005, A&A, 435, L25

Telescopes and Instrumentation

8-13 (PDF)
M. Kasper et al.
Direct Imaging of Exoplanets and Brown Dwarfs with the VLT: NACO Pupil-stabilised Lyot Coronagraphy at 4 µm

ADS BibCode:
2009Msngr.137....8K
Section:
Telescopes and Instrumentation
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Kasper, M.; Amico, P.; Pompei, E.; Ageorges, N.; Apai, D.; Argomedo, J.; Kornweibel, N.; Lidman, C.
AA(ESO) AB(ESO) AC(ESO) AD(Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Garching, Germany) AE(Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, USA) AF(ESO) AG(ESO) AH(ESO)
Abstract:
NACO is the versatile adaptive optics assisted near-infrared instrument at the VLT. Among its many modes it offers spectral differential imaging that efficiently enhances the contrast in searches for faint companions. Recently, an additional method to calibrate quasi-static speckles through angular differential imaging has been developed, offering the option to operate NACO in a pupil-tracking mode. Using this new mode, in combination with Lyot coronagraphy and an optimal choice of observing wavelength in the thermal infrared around 4 µm, allows NACO to reach unprecedented sensitivities for masses of companions for all but the hottest exoplanets, beginning to open up the mass domain targeted by future instruments such as SPHERE.
References:
Biller, B. et al. 2007, ApJS, 173, 143 Burrows, A., Sudarsky, D. & Lunine, J. I. 2003, ApJ, 596, 587 Chauvin, G. et al. 2003, A&A, 404, 157 Chauvin, G. et al. 2005, A&A, 438, L25 Chun, M. et al. 2008, Proc. SPIE, 7015, 49 Janson, M. et al. 2008, A&A, 488, 771 Kasper, M. et al. 2007, A&A, 472, 321 Lafrenière, D. et al. 2007, ApJ, 670, 1367 Lagrange, A.-M. et al. 2009, A&A, 493, 21 Masciadri, E. et al. 2005, ApJ, 625, 1004 Marois, C. et al. 2008, Science, 322, 1348 Neuhäuser, R. et al. 2005, A&A, 435, L13
14-17 (PDF)
S. Hippler et al.
The AstraLux Sur Lucky Imaging Instrument at the NTT

ADS BibCode:
2009Msngr.137...14H
Section:
Telescopes and Instrumentation
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Hippler, S.; Bergfors, C.; Brandner, W.; Daemgen, S.; Henning, T.; Hormuth, F.; Huber, A.; Janson, M.; Rochau, B.; Rohloff, R.-R.; Wagner, K.
AA(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA), Heidelberg, Germany) AB(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA), Heidelberg, Germany) AC(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA), Heidelberg, Germany) AD(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA), Heidelberg, Germany; ESO) AE(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA), Heidelberg, Germany) AF(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA), Heidelberg, Germany; German–Spanish Astronomical Center at Calar Alto (CAHA), Spain) AG(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA), Heidelberg, Germany) AH(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA), Heidelberg, Germany; Department of Astronomy, University of Toronto, Canada) AI(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA), Heidelberg, Germany) AJ(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA), Heidelberg, Germany) AK(Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA), Heidelberg, Germany)
Abstract:
Lucky Imaging is an observational technique that aims to achieve nearly-diffraction-limited image quality from the ground on 2–4-metre-class telescopes. While diffraction-limited observations from the ground are usually accomplished with the help of adaptive optics in the near-infrared spectral range at almost all 8–10-metre-class telescopes, Lucky Imaging aims for a similar imaging performance at shorter wavelengths, in particular from 0.7–1.1 microns. AstraLux Sur, a visitor instrument for the NTT, built at the Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy, is described and some early results are presented.
References:
Baldwin, J. E. et al. 2001, A&A, 368, L1 Daemgen, S. et al. 2009, A&A, 498, 567 Fried, D. L. 1978, JOSA, 68, 1651 Hecquet, J. & Coupinot, G. 1985, Journal of Optics, 16, 21 Hormuth, F. et al. 2007, A&A, 463, 707 Hormuth, F. et al. 2008, SPIE, 7014, 48 Law, N. et al. 2009, ApJ, 692, 924 Richichi, A. 2009, The Messenger, 135, 32 Tubbs, R. N. 2003, PhD Thesis, University of Cambridge
18-23 (PDF)
P. Martinez et al.
Halftoning for High-contrast Imaging: Developments for the SPHERE and EPICS Instruments

ADS BibCode:
2009Msngr.137...18M
Section:
Telescopes and Instrumentation
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Martinez, P.; Dorrer, C.; Aller-Carpentier, E.; Kasper, M.; Boccaletti, A.; Dohlen, K.
AA(ESO) AB(Aktiwave, Rochester, New York, USA) AC(ESO) AD(ESO) AE(LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, France) AF(Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille, France)
Abstract:
Controlling the amplitude of light is crucial for many scientific applications, such as in imaging systems, astronomical instruments or laser physics. We provide a brief overview of recent R&D activities at ESO using halftoning, the process of presenting a continuous image through use of dots. Customised filters with spatially varying transmission are produced using a binary array of metal pixels that offers excellent control of the local transmission. Applications to the production of an apodiser for the VLT SPHERE instrument and a mask for E-ELT EPICS are presented.
References:
Aller Carpentier, E. et al. 2008, Proc. SPIE, 7015, 108 Antichi, J. et al. 2009, ApJ, 695, 1042 Dorrer, C. & Zeugel, J. D. 2007, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, 24, 1268 Martinez, P. et al. 2007, A&A, 474, 671 Martinez, P. et al. 2008, A&A, 492, 289 Martinez, P. et al. 2009a, A&A, 495, 363 Martinez, P. et al. 2009b, A&A, 500, 1281 Martinez, P. et al. 2009c, ApJ, accepted

Astronomical Science

25-29 (PDF)
J.-B. Le Bouquin et al.
First Images from the VLT Interferometer

ADS BibCode:
2009Msngr.137...25B
Section:
Astronomical Science
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Le Bouquin, J.-B.; Millour, F.; Merand, A.; VLTI Science Operations Team
AA(ESO) AB(Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastro-nomie, Bonn, Germany) AC(ESO) AD(ESO)
Abstract:
The ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer has recently produced its first images, achieving a spatial resolution of a few milliarcseconds. The published images reveal the precise astrometry of close massive binaries (θ1 Ori C and HD87643), the presence of material close to the surface of an old, variable star (T Lep), and the dusty environment of an active galactic nucleus (NGC 1068). However, this is only a first step and additional results and numerous improvements are expected in the forthcoming years.
References:
Cotton, W. et al. 2008, Proc. SPIE, 7013, 70131N Eisenhauer, F. et al. 2008, IAU Symposium, 248, 100 Haguenauer, P. et al. 2008, Proc. SPIE, 7013, 70130C Kraus, S. et al. 2009, A&A, 497, 195 Le Bouquin, J.-B. et al. 2009, A&A, 496, L1 Lopez, B. et al. 2008, Proc. SPIE, 7013, 70132B Malbet, F. et al. 2008, Proc. SPIE, 7013, 701329 Millour, F. et al. 2009, A&A, accepted Monnier, J. et al. 2007, Science, 317, 342 Petrov, R. et al. 2007, A&A, 464, 1 Raban, D. et al. 2009, MNRAS, 394, 1325 Thiébaut, E. 2008, Proc. SPIE, 7013, 70131I
30-33 (PDF)
J. Sulentic et al.
Constraining Quasar Structural Evolution with VLT/ISAAC

ADS BibCode:
2009Msngr.137...30S
Section:
Astronomical Science
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Sulentic, J.; Marziani, P.; Stirpe, G.; Zamfir, S.; Dultzin, D.; Calvani, M.; Repetto, P.; Zamanov, R.
AA(University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, USA; Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, Granada, Spain) AB(INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Italy) AC(INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Italy) AD(University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, USA) AE(Instituto de Astronomía, UNAM, Mexico) AF(INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Italy) AG(Instituto de Astronomía, UNAM, Mexico) AH(Bulgarian Academy of Science, Sofia, Bulgaria)
Abstract:
We describe a VLT–ISAAC spectroscopic survey of the Hb region for more than 50 quasars at redshifts between 1 and 3. We use the width of Hb as a virial estimator of black hole mass and the Eddington ratio. The minimum observed width of Hb increases from ~ 500–1000 km/s at low luminosity to ~ 3500 km/s in the high luminosity domain. This trend is consistent with the virial assumption and a broad line region size-luminosity relation with exponent a ~ 0.65. Broader lined sources show a second very broad and redshifted Hb line component, which should be removed for reliable black hole mass estimation.
References:
Bernardi, M. et al. 2005, AJ, 129, 61 Collin, S. et al. 2006, A&Ap, 456, 75 Kaspi, S. et al. 2005, ApJ, 629, 61 Kühr, H. et al. 1984, ApJ, 284, L5 Kurk, J. et al. 2007, ApJ, 669, 32 Marziani, P. et al. 2003, MNRAS, 345, 1133 Marziani, P. et al. 2009, A&Ap, 495, 83 Netzer, H. et al. 2004, ApJ, 614, 558 Ryan, C. et al. 2007, ApJ, 654, 799 Sulentic, J. W. et al. 2000a, ApJ, 536, L5 Sulentic, J. W. et al. 2000b, ARA&A, 38, 521 Sulentic, J. W. et al. 2000c, ApJ, 545, L15 Sulentic, J. W. et al. 2001, The Messenger, 104, 25 Sulentic, J. W. et al. 2004, A&Ap, 423, 121 Sulentic, J. W. et al. 2006, A&Ap, 456, 929 Sulentic, J. W. et al. 2007, ApJ, 666, 757 Zamfir, S. et al. 2008, MNRAS, 387, 856 Zhou, H. et al. 2006, ApJS, 166, 128
34-40 (PDF)
B. Ziegler et al.
Velocity Fields of Distant Galaxies with FORS2

ADS BibCode:
2009Msngr.137...34Z
Section:
Astronomical Science
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Ziegler, B.; Kutdemir, E.; Da Rocha, C.; Böhm, A.; Kapferer, W.; Kuntschner, H.; Peletier, R.; Schindler, S.; Verdugo, M.
AA(ESO) AB(Kapteyn Institute, Groningen, the Netherlands) AC(ESO) AD(University of Innsbruck, Austria) AE(University of Innsbruck, Austria) AF(ESO) AG(Kapteyn Institute, Groningen, the Netherlands) AH(University of Innsbruck, Austria) AI(University of Göttingen, Germany)
Abstract:
We describe a method of obtaining two-dimensional velocity fields of distant, faint and small, emission-line galaxies efficiently with FORS2 at the VLT. The fields are examined for kinematic substructure to identify possible interaction processes. Numerical simulations of tidal interactions and ram pressure effects reveal distinct signatures observable with our method. We detect a significant fraction of galaxies with irregular velocity fields both in the field and cluster environments.
References:
Böhm, A. et al. 2004, A&A, 420, 97 Böhm, A. & Ziegler, B. 2007, ApJ, 668, 846 Ferreras, I. et al. 2004, MNRAS, 355, 64 Daigle, O. et al. 2006, MNRAS, 367, 469 Jäger, K. et al. 2004, A&A, 422, 941 Kapferer, W. et al. 2009, A&A, 499, 87 Krajnovic, D. et al. 2006, MNRAS, 366, 787 Kronberger, T. et al. 2007, A&A, 473, 761 Kronberger, T. et al. 2008, A&A, 483, 783 Kutdemir, E. et al. 2008, A&A, 488, 117 Kutdemir, E. et al. 2009, A&A, submitted Springel, W. 2005, MNRAS, 364, 1105 Tully, R. B. & Fisher, J. R. 1977, A&A, 54, 661 Ziegler, B. et al. 2003, ApJL, 598, 87
41-45 (PDF)
A. Renzini, E. Daddi
Wandering in the Redshift Desert

ADS BibCode:
2009Msngr.137...41R
Section:
Astronomical Science
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Renzini, A.; Daddi, E.
AA(INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Italy) AB(CEA, Saclay, France)
Abstract:
The cosmic star formation rate, active galactic nuclei activity, galaxy growth, mass assembly and morphological differentiation all culminate at redshift z ~ 2. Yet, the redshift interval 1.4 < z < 3 is harder to explore than both the closer and the more distant Universe. In spite of so much action taking place in this spacetime portion of the Universe, it has been dubbed the “redshift desert”, as if very little was happening within its boundaries. The difficulties encountered in properly mapping the galaxy populations inhabiting the desert are illustrated in this paper, along with some possible remedies.
References:
Cimatti, A. et al. 2008, A&A, 482, 21 Daddi, E. et al. 2004, ApJ, 617, 746 Daddi, E. et al. 2007a, ApJ, 670, 156 Daddi, E. et al. 2007b, ApJ, 670, 173 Deckel, A. et al. 2009, Nature, 457, 451 Föster-Schreiber, N. M. et al. 2009, ApJ, submitted (arXiv0903.1872) Genzel, R. et al. 2006, Nature, 442, 786 Greggio, L. et al. 2008, MNRAS, 388, 829 Halliday, C. et al. 2008, A&A, 479, 417 Kimura, M. et al. 2003, SPIE, 4841, 974 Lilly, S. J. et al. 2007, ApJS, 172, 70 Maraston, C. 2005, MNRAS, 362, 799 McCracken, H. J. et al. 2009, ApJ, submitted Mignoli, M. et al. 2005, A&A, 437, 883 Pannella, M. et al. 2009, ApJ, 698, L116 Tacconi, L. J. et al. 2008, ApJ, 680, 246

Astronomical News

47-49 (PDF)
M. Böcker et al.
Health, Safety and Performance in High Altitude Observatories: A Sustainable Approach

ADS BibCode:
2009Msngr.137...47B
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Böcker, M.; Vogt, J.; Christ, O.; Müller-Leonhardt, A.
AA(ESO) AB(Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany) AC(Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany) AD(Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany)
Abstract:
The research project “Optimising Performance, Health and Safety in High Altitude Observatories” was initiated by ESO to establish an approach to promote the well-being of staff working at its high altitude observatories, and in particular at the Antiplano de Chajnantor. A survey by a questionnaire given to both workers and visitors was employed to assess the effects of working conditions at high altitude. Earlier articles have outlined the project and reported early results. The final results and conclusions are presented, together with a concept for sustainable development to improve the performance, health and safety at high altitude employing Critical Incident Stress Management.
References:
Böcker, M. & Vogt, J. 2007, The Messenger, 127, 64 Böcker, M., Vogt, J. & Nolle-Gössner, T. 2008, The Messenger, 133, 49 Kraus, M. et al. 2008, The Messenger, 132, 23 Mosmann, H. 2009, Master’s Thesis, University of Saarbrücken, Germany Schwarzer, R. 2008, Applied Psychology: An Inter- national Review, 57, 1 Six, B. 1992, in Beiträge des 7. Hamburger Sympo- siums zur Methodologie der Sozialpsychologie, Einstellung und Verhalten, ed. Witte, E. H., (Braunschweig), 21 Vogt, J. & Pennig, S. 2006, in Critical Incident Stress Management in Aviation, ed. Leonhardt, H. & Vogt, J., (Aldershot: Ashgate), 153
50-51 (PDF)
L. Verdes-Montenegro
Report on the Workshop Impact of ALMA on Spanish Extragalactic Astronomy

ADS BibCode:
2009Msngr.137...50V
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Verdes-Montenegro, L.
AA(Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, CSIC, Granada, Spain)
Abstract:
In order to prepare the Spanish extragalactic community for the impact of ALMA science, a meeting with participation of non-radio astronomers was held to introduce the ALMA capabilities and to explore the synergies with optical and infrared facilities.
51-52 (PDF)
I. Hook et al.
Report on the ESO Workshop E-ELT Design Reference Mission and Science Plan

ADS BibCode:
2009Msngr.137...51H
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Hook, I.; Liske, J.; Villegas, D.; Kissler-Patig, M.
AA(Department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, United Kingdom; INAF Osservatorio di Roma, Italy) AB(ESO) AC(ESO) AD(ESO)
Abstract:
ESO hosted a dedicated workshop on the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) Design Reference Mission (DRM) and the Design Reference Science Plan (DRSP). The main aim of this three-day workshop was to exchange information and ideas with the scientific community on the status of the E-ELT and in particular on the development of the E-ELT science case through simulations.
52-54 (PDF)
M. Arnaboldi, S. D’Odorico
Report on the ESO Workshop Imaging at the E-ELT

ADS BibCode:
2009Msngr.137...52A
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Arnaboldi, M.; D’Odorico, S.
AA(ESO) AB(ESO)
Abstract:
The aim of this one-day workshop, part of the FP7-funded programme to prepare for the European Extremely Large Telescope, was to bring together members of the community working on wide-field imagers on 4–8-metre-class telescopes and on instruments and science cases related to imaging at the E-ELT, exploring complementarities and synergies between the two communities.
References:
Arnaboldi, M. et al. 2007, The Messenger, 127, 28 Emerson, J., McPherson, A. & Sutherland, W. 2006, The Messenger, 126, 41 Gardner, J. et al. 2006, Spa. Sci. Reviews, 123, 485
55-55 (PDF)
L.L. Christensen
ESO at the XXVIIth IAU General Assembly

ADS BibCode:
2009Msngr.137...55C
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Christensen, L.L.
AA(ESO)
56-56 (PDF)
E. Emsellem et al.
Report on the 2009 ESO Fellows Symposium

ADS BibCode:
2009Msngr.137...56E
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Emsellem, E.; West, M.; Leibundgut, B.
AA(ESO) AB(ESO) AC(ESO)
Abstract:
The fourth ESO Fellows Symposium took place in Garching from 8–10 June 2009. This year’s symposium brought together 28 ESO Fellows from Chile and Germany to meet their colleagues from across the ocean, discuss their research and provide feedback on ESO’s Fellowship programme. This year’s symposium also included training workshops to enhance the practical skills of ESO Fellows in today’s competitive job market.
57-57 (PDF)
M. West
Report on the 2009 Joint Observatories Science Retreat in Chile

ADS BibCode:
2009Msngr.137...57W
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
West, M.
AA(ESO)
Abstract:
In Chile, an old tradition has been revived with a new twist. Recently, more than 50 astronomers from ESO, ALMA, Gemini, CTIO, Las Campanas and SOAR participated in a two-day Joint Observatories Science Retreat that was held in La Serena. The goal of this event was to bring together astronomers from all the major international observatories in Chile to share their science, to discuss common interests and to stimulate new research collaborations.
58-58 (PDF)
N. Delmotte
News from the ESO Science Archive Facility

ADS BibCode:
2009Msngr.137...58D
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Delmotte, N.
AA(ESO, for the ESO archive team)
Abstract:
The latest developments from the archive are presented. Information is provided to the astronomical community on new data releases and services.
References:
Nonino, M. et al. 2009, ApJS, 183, 244 Tacconi-Garman, L. E. 2007, The Messenger, 130, 54
59-59 (PDF)
ESO
Fellows at ESO

ADS BibCode:
2009Msngr.137...59.
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
ESO
AA(ESO)
60-60 (PDF)
ESO
Announcement of the ESO Workshop Galaxy Clusters in the Early Universe

ADS BibCode:
2009Msngr.137Q..60.
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
ESO
AA(ESO)
60-60 (PDF)
ESO
Announcement of the ESO Workshop The Origin and Fate of the Sun: Evolution of Solar-mass Stars Observed with High Angular Resolution

ADS BibCode:
2009Msngr.137R..60.
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
ESO
AA(ESO)
63-63 (PDF)
ESO
ESO and EDP Sciences Sign New Contract for Astronomy and Astrophysics

ADS BibCode:
2009Msngr.137Q..63.
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
ESO
AA(ESO)
63-63 (PDF)
ESO
Personnel Movements

ADS BibCode:
2009Msngr.137R..63.
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
ESO
AA(ESO)