ESO Glossary of Acronyms

The present list contains the most common acronyms used by ESO, but does not pretend to be complete.


4-LGSF  Four-Laser Guide Star Facility 
4T Four Telescope  (VLTI mode)
A&A  Journal, Astronomy & Astrophysics 
ACD Amplitude Calibration Device (ALMA)
AEM ALMA construction consortium
AIDA Astronomical Infrastructure for Data Access 
AIV Assembly, Integration and Verification 
ALMA  Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array 
AMBER  Astronomical Multi-BEam combineR (VLTI Instrument)
Antu VLT Unit Telescope 1
AO  Adaptive Optics 
AOF  Adaptive Optics Facility 
AOS  Array Operations Site (ALMA) 
APEX  Atacama Pathfinder Experiment 
Aquarius Mid-infrared detector array (VISIR)
ARAL Alignment facility for the VLTI
ARC ALMA Regional Centre
ASIC Application Specific Integrated Circuit
ASSIST  Adaptive Secondary Setup and Instrument Simulator (AOF)
AstraLux Lucky Imaging camera for the Calar Alto 2.2-metre telescope
AT  Auxiliary Telescope for the VLTI 
ATC Astronomy Technology Centre (United Kingdom)
ATILO Administrative Tribunal of the International Labour Organisation
AU Astronomical Unit
AVM Astronomical Visualisation Metadata
BE Back-End (ALMA)
CADC  Canadian Astronomy Data Centre 
CAPj Communicating Astronomy with the Public Journal
CCD Charge Coupled Device
CDR Critical Design Review
CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research
CES Coude Echelle Spectrometer
CMB Cosmic Microwave Background
CMOS Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor
CNAM Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers
CONICA  COudé Near-Infrared CAmera (VLT) 
CORALIE Echelle Spectrograph on the 1.2-metre Leonard Euler Swiss telescope
CoRoT COnvection ROtation and planetary Transits (French Satellite)
CP Calibration Programme
CRIRES  Cryogenic InfraRed Echelle Spectrometer (VLT) 
CSV Commissioning and Science Verification
DC Direct Current
DDS Data DistributIOn middleware for SPARTA
DDT Director's Discretionary Time
DG Director General
DL Delay Line (VLTI)
DMO Data Management and Operations Division 
DSM  Deformable Secondary Mirror
DSO Department of Science Operations (ALMA)
EASC European ALMA Support Centre
EC  European Commission 
ECRI European Conference on Research Infrastructures
E-ELT  European Extremely Large Telescope
EFOSC2 ESO Faint Object Spectrograph and Camera (v.2)
EIROforum Organisation consisting of the seven largest scientific European international organisations devoted to fostering mutual activities
EMBL European Molecular Biology Laboratory (Germany)
EMMI  ESO Multi-Mode Instrument (NTT) 
ePOD education and Public Outreach Department
ERP Enterprise Resource Planning
ESA  European Space Agency 
ESAC  European Science Advisory Committee (for ALMA)
ESE  ELT Science and Engineering 
ESPRESSO Echelle SPectrograph for Rocky Exoplanet- and Stable Spectroscopic Observations
ESM European School Munich
ESO European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere
ESOF Euroscience Open Forum
ESON ESO Science Outreach Network
ESRC E-ELT Standing Review Committee
EU European Union
EVALSO Enabling Virtual Access to Latin-american Southern Observatories
FC Finance Committee
FE Front End
FEA Finite Element Analysis
FEED Front-End Engineering Design (E-ELT)
FEIC Front-End Integration Centres (ALMA)
FE IPT Front-End Integrated Project Team (ALMA)
FEROS  Fibre-fed, Extended Range, Échelle Spectrograph (2.2-metre) 
FITS  Flexible Image Transport System 
FORS1 FOcal Reducer/low dispersion Spectrograph (VLT)-1
FORS2 FOcal Reducer/low dispersion Spectrograph (VLT)-2
FOS Faint Object Spectrograph (HST)
FP Fabry-Perot
FP6 Sixth EC Framework Programme 
FP7 Seventh EC Framework Programme 
FTE Full Time Equivalent
FWHM Full Width at Half Maximum
GALACSI  Ground Atmospheric Layer Adaptive Optics for Spectroscopic Imaging  (AOF)
GB Gigabyte
GÉANT European multi-gigabit computer network for research and education purposes
GHz  Gigahertz 
GIRAFFE  Medium-high resolution (R=7500-30000) spectrograph (VLT)
GRAAL GRound-layer Adaptive optics Assisted by Lasers (AOF)
GRAVITY  AO assisted, two-object, multiple-beam-combiner (VLTI) 
GTC Gran Telescopio Canarias 
GUI  Graphical User Interface 
HARMONI Visible and near-infrared integral field spectrograph (E-ELT)
HARPS  High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planetary Searcher (3.6-metre)
HAWK-I  High Acuity Wide field K-band Imager (VLT)
HCI Human Computer Interface
HIA Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics (Canada)
HR  Human Resources
HST  Hubble Space Telescope 
HVAC Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning
IAU  International Astronomical Union 
IFS Integral Field Spectrograph (SPHERE, E-ELT)
IFU Integral Field Unit
INAF  Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (Italy) 
INRIA Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique
IPP Max-Planck Institute for Plasma Physics (Germany)
IPSAS International Public Sector Accounting Standards
IPT Integrated Product Team (ALMA)
IR  InfraRed 
IRAM Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique
IRDIS InfraRed Dual-beam Imager and Spectrograph (SPHERE, E-ELT)
IRIS VLTI Infrared Image Sensor
IRO International Relations Office
ISAAC  Infrared Spectrometer And Array Camera (VLT)
IT  Information Technology 
ITER International  Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor 
IVOA  International Virtual Observatory Alliance
IVSLA Istituto Veneto di Scienze ed Arti
IYA2009 International Year of Astronomy 2009
JAO  Joint ALMA Observatory 
JENAM  Joint European and National Astronomy Meeting
JWST James Webb Space Telescope
KMOS  K-band Multi-Object Spectrograph (VLT)
Kueyan VLT Unit Telescope 2
LABOCA  Large APEX Bolometer CAmera 
LAOG Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de l'Observatoire de Grenoble
LGS Laser Guide Star
LGSF  Laser Guide Star Facility 
LMC Large Magellanic Cloud
LOFAR Low Frequency Array
LP  Large Programme 
LSP La Silla Paranal Committee
Mn Mirror #n
MAD  Multi-conjugate Adaptive optics Demonstrator
mas milliarcseconds
MASCOT Mini All-Sky Cloud Observation Tool (Paranal)
MATISSE  Multi AperTure mid-Infrared SpectroScopic Experiment (VLTI)
Melipal VLT Unit Telescope 3
MERIL Mapping the European Research Infrastructure Landscape
MICADO Diffraction-limited camera (E-ELT)
MIDI  Mid-infrared Interferometric Instrument (VLTI)
MIM Museo Interactivo Mirador, Santiago
MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology
MPA Max-Planck Institute for Astrophysics
MPE  Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (Germany)
MPG Max-Planck-Gesellschaft
MPIfR  Max-Planck Institute for Radioastronomy (Germany)
MUSE  Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (VLT)
NACO  NAOS-CONICA (VLT) 
NAOJ  National Astronomical Observatory of Japan
NAOMI Adaptive optics system for the Ats (VLTI)
NAOS  Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System (VLT)
NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NGC  New General detector Controller 
NOVA  The Netherlands Research School for Astronomy (Nederlandse Onderzoekschool voor Astronomie)  
NRAO National Radio Astronomical Observatory
NTT  New Technology Telescope 
OBAMA Optical Bidule for Aberration Measurement on the ATs
OmegaCAM  Optical Camera for the VST 
OPC  Observing Programmes Committee 
OPO Observing Programmes Office
OPTICON  Optical Infrared Coordination Network for Astronomy 
OSF  ALMA Operations Support Facilities 
OSO Onsala Space Observatory
OT Observing Tool
OTS Operations Technical Support
P2PP Peer to Peer Protocol
P86 Observing Period 86
P87 Observing Period 87
PACMAN Fringe tracker for PRIMA (VLTI)
PB Petabyte
PI  Principal Investigator 
PIONIER VLTI visitor instrument
PLC Programmable Logic Controllers (E-ELT)
PRIMA  Phase-Referenced Imaging and Micro-arcsecond Astrometry facility (VLTI)
QUEST QUasar Equatorial Survey Team
R&D  Research and Development 
RAB Reflector Assembly Building
RAL  Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (UK)
RedCLARA Latin American Advanced Networks Cooperation (Academic data network in Latin America)
REM Rapid Eye Movement Telescope (La Silla)
REUNA Red Universitaria Nacional (Academic data network in Chile)
RM Rossiter-McClaughlin (effect)
RMN Reflective Memory Network (VLTI)
rms Root mean square
SABOCA Shortwave Apex BOlometer Camera 
SAC  EURO-VO Science Advisory Committee
SAF Science Archive Facility
SCAO Single-Conjugated Adaptive Optics
SCO Santiago Central Office (ALMA/ESO Vitacura)
SDD Software Development Division 
SE System Engineering (ALMA)
SEO Search Engine Operations
SHFI Swedish Heterodyne Facility Instrument (APEX)
SINFONI  Spectrograph for INtegral Field Observations in the Near Infrared (VLT) 
SKA Square Kilometer Array
SM4 Servicing Mission 4 (HST) 
SOFI  SOn oF Isaac (NTT) 
SOPHIE Spectrographe pour l’Observation des Phénomènes des Intérieurs stellaires et des Exoplanètes
SPARTA Real-time computer platform for AOF and SPHERE
SPHERE  Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet Research instrument (VLT)
SSED Software System Engineering Department
SSWG Science Strategy Working Group 
STC  Scientific Technical Committee
ST-ECF  Space Telescope European Coordination Facility
STFC Science and Technology Facilities Council (UK)
STRAP Tip-tilt sensors (VLTI)
STScI  Space Telescope Science Institute (USA)
SUSI2 Superb Seeing Imager 2 (NTT)
sub-mm submillimetre
TAROT Télescope à Action Rapide pour les Objets Transitoires
TB Terabyte
TEC Technology Division
TFB  Tunable Filter Bank (ALMA)
TIMMI TIMMI far-infrared camera (ESO 3.6-metre telescope)
ToO  Target of Opportunity 
TRAPPIST TRAnsiting Planets and PlanetesImals Small Telescope
TRR Test Readiness Review
UC  Users Committee 
UK  United Kingdom 
ULTRACAM High-speed camera (NTT)
UN United Nations
UNCOPUOS United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Spac
USD User Support Department
USM University Observatory Munich
UT  Unit Telescope of the VLT 
UT1–4  VLT Unit Telescopes 1–4: Antu, Kueyen, Melipal and Yepun 
UV  UltraViolet 
UVES  UV-Visual Echelle Spectrograph (VLT)
VIMOS  VIsible MultiObject Spectrograph (VLT)
VINCI VLT INterferometer Commissioning Instrument (VLTI)
VIRCAM  VISTA IR Camera 
VISA  VLTI Sub-Array 
VISIR  VLT Mid-Infrared Imager Spectrometer
VISTA  Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy 
VLT  Very Large Telescope 
VLTI  Very Large Telescope Interferometer 
VO  Virtual Observatory 
VOP Virtual Observatory Project Office 
VSS Variability Sky Survey
VST  VLT Survey Telescope 
WASP Wide Angle Search for Planets survey
WFCAM Infrared wide field camera for the UK Infrared Telescope on Mauna Kea
WFI  Wide Field Imager (2.2-metre) 
WVR Water Vapour Radiometer (ALMA)
XMM-Newton  X-ray Multi-Mirror satellite (ESA) 
X-shooter  Wideband ultraviolet-infrared single target spectrograph (VLT) 
Yepun VLT Unit Telescope 4
ZIMPOL Zurich Imaging Polarimeter (SPHERE, E-ELT)
Z-Spec Millimetre-wave spectrograph (APEX visitor instrument)